Tuesday, January 27, 2015

Publications of Wolfgang Haak

(Link)

Refereed journal articles
Templeton JEL, Brotherton PM, Llamas B, Soubrier J, Haak W, Cooper A, Austin J. DNA capture and Next Generation Sequencing recover whole mitochondrial genomes from highly degraded samples for human identification. Investigative Genetics (in press).

Brandt G*, Haak W*, Adler CJ, Roth C, Szécsényi-Nagy A, Karimnia S, Möller-Rieker S, Meller H, Ganslmeier R, Friederich S, Dresely V, Nicklisch N, Pickrell J, Sirocko F, Reich D, Cooper A, Alt KW, The Genographic Consortium (2013). Ancient DNA Reveals Key Stages in the Formation of Central European Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity. Science 342: 257-261. doi:10.1126/science.1241844.

Mundorff AZ, Kiley S, Latham KE, Haak W, Gilson T (2013) Individualizing Unidentified Skeletal Remains: A Differential Diagnosis Combining Pathological Changes and Biomolecular Testing. Journal of Forensic Identification 63 (6): 617-632.

Boattini A, Martinez-Cruz B, Sarno S, Harmant C, Useli A, Sanz P, Yang-Yao D, Manry J, Ciani G, Luiselli D, Quintana-Murci L, Comas D, Pettener D, The Genographic Consortium (2013). Uniparental markers in Italy reveal a sex-biased genetic structure and different historical strata. PLoS One 8 (5): e65441. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065441.

Elhaik E, Greenspan E, Staats S, Krahn T, Tyler-Smith C, Xue Y, Tofanelli S, Francalacci P, Cucca F, Pagani L, Jin L, Li H, Schurr TG, Greenspan B, Spencer Wells R, The Genographic Consortium (2013) The GenoChip: a new tool for genetic anthropology. Genome Biology and Evolution(5): 1021-31. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evt066.

Brotherton P*, Haak W*, Templeton J, Brandt G, Soubrier J, Adler CJ, Richards SM, Der Sarkissian C, Ganslmeier R, Friederich S, Dresely V, van Oven M, Kenyon R, Van der Hoek M, Korlach J, Luong K, Ho SYW, Quintana-Murci L, Behar DM, Meller H, Alt KW, Cooper A & The Genographic Project (2013) Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans. Nature Communications 4 (1764). doi:10.1038/ncomms2656.

Adler CJ, Dobney K, Weyrich L, Kaidonis J, Walker AW, Haak W, Bradshaw CJA, Townsend G, Sołtysiak, A, Alt KW, Parkhill J, Cooper, A (2013). Ancient DNA records the impacts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions on human oral microbiota and disease. Nature Genetics. Advance online publication. doi:10.1038/ng.2536.

Der Sarkissian C, Balanovsky O, Brandt G, Khartanovich V, Buzhilova A, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Moiseyev V, Gronenborn D, Kolpakov E, Shumkin V, Alt KW, Balanovska E, Cooper A, Haak W, The Genographic Consortium (2013). Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe. PLoS Genetics 9 (2): e1003296. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003296.

Fehren-Schmitz L, Llamas B, Tomasto-Cagigao E, Haak W (2012) Ancient DNA and the early population history of western South America: what have we learned so far and where do we go from here? Boletin Arqueologia PUCP 15. [Spanish].

Badro DA, Douaihy B, Haber M, Youhanna SC, Salloum A, Ghassibe-Sabbagh M, Johnsrud B, Khazen G, Matisoo-Smith E, Soria-Hernanz DF, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C, Platt DE, Zalloua PA, The Genographic Consortium (2013) Y chromosome and mtDNA Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts in Affinities of Modern Middle Eastern Populations with European and African Populations. PLoS One 8 (1): e54616. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054616.

Behar DM, Harman t C, Manry J, van Oven M, Haak W, Martinez-Cruz B, Salaberria J, Oyharçabal B, Bauduer F, Comas D, Quintana-Murci L, The Genographic Consortium (2012) The Basque paradigm: genetic evidence of a maternal continuity in the Franco-Cantabrian Region since the Late Paleolithic. American Journal of Human Genetics 90 (3): 486-493. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.01.002.

Arunkumar G, Soria-Hernanz DF, Kavitha VJ, Arun VS, Syama A, Ashokan KS, Gandhirajan KT, Vijayakumar K, Narayanan M, Jayalakshmi M, Ziegle JS, Royyuru AK, Parida L, Wells RS, Renfrew C, Schurr TG, Smith CT, Platt DE, Pitchappan R, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system. PLoS One 7 (11): e50269. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.

Martínez-Cruz B, Harmant C, Platt DE, Haak W, Manry J, Ramos-Luis E, Soria-Hernanz DF, Bauduer F, Salaberria J, Oyharçabal B, Quintana-Murci L, Comas D, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Evidence of Pre-Roman Tribal Genetic Structure in Basques from Uniparentally Inherited Markers. Molecular Biology & Evolution 29 (9): 2211-2222. doi: 10.1093/molbev/mss091.

Dulik MC, Owings AC, Gaieski JB, Vilar MG, Andre A, Lennie C, Mackenzie MA, Kritsch I, Snowshoe S, Wright R, Martin J, Gibson N, Andrews TD, Schurr TG, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Y-chromosome analysis reveals genetic divergence and new founding native lineages in Athapaskan- and Eskimoan-speaking populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (22): 8471-6.

Rębała K, Martínez-Cruz B, Tönjes A, Kovacs P, Stumvoll M, Lindner I, Büttner A, Wichmann HE, Siváková D, Soták M, Quintana-Murci L, Szczerkowska Z, Comas D, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements. European Journal of Human Genetics. Sep 12. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2012.190.

Martinez-Cruz B, Ioana M, Calafell F, Arauna LR, Sanz P, Ionescu R, Boengiu S, Kalaydjieva L, Pamjav H, Makukh H, Plantinga T, van der Meer JW, Comas D, Netea MG, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Y-Chromosome Analysis in Individuals Bearing the Basarab Name of the First Dynasty of Wallachian Kings. PLoS One 7 (7): e41803.

Schurr TG, Dulik MC, Owings AC, Zhadanov SI, Gaieski JB, Vilar MG, Ramos J, Moss MB, Natkong F, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Clan, language, and migration history has shaped genetic diversity in Haida and Tlingit populations from Southeast Alaska. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148 (3): 422-35. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22068.

Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, Martínez-Cruz B, Douaihy B, Ghassibe-Sabbagh M, Rafatpanah H, Ghanbari M, Whale J, Balanovsky O, Wells RS, Comas D, Tyler-Smith C, Zalloua PA, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events. PLoS One 7 (3) :e34288.

Lu Y, Wang C, Qin Z, Wen B, Farina SE, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Mitochondrial origin of the matrilocal Mosuo people in China. Mitochondrial DNA 23 (1): 13-9.

Kang L, Lu Y, Wang C, Hu K, Chen F, Liu K, Li S, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Y-chromosome O3 haplogroup diversity in Sino-Tibetan populations reveals two migration routes into the eastern Himalayas. Annuals of Human Genetics 76 (1): 92-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00690.x.

Javed A, Melé M, Pybus M, Zalloua P, Haber M, Comas D, Netea MG, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Jin L, Yang Y, Arunkumar G, Pitchappan R, Bertranpetit J, Calafell F, Parida L, The Genographic Consortium (2012) Recombination networks as genetic markers in a human variation study of the Old World. Human Genetics 131 (4): 601-13. doi: 10.1007/s00439-011-1104-8.

Melé M, Javed A, Pybus M, Zalloua P, Haber M, Comas D, Netea MG, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Jin L, Yang Y, Pitchappan RM, Arunkumar G, Parida L, Calafell F, Bertranpetit J, and The Genographic Consortium (2012) Recombination gives a new insight in the effective population size and the history of the Old World human populations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 29 (1): 25-30.

Adler CJ, Haak W, Donlon D, Cooper A, The Genographic Consortium (2011) Survival and recovery of DNA from ancient teeth and bones. Journal of Archaeological Science 38 (5): 956-964.

Balanovsky O, Dibirova K, Dybo A, Mudrak O, Frolova S, Pocheshkhova E, Haber M, Platt D, Schurr T, Haak W, Kuznetsova M, Radzhabov M, Balaganskaya O, Druzhinina E, Zakharova T, Soria Hernanz DF, Zalloua P, Koshel S, Ruhlen M, Renfrew C, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C, Balanovska E, The Genographic Consortium (2011) Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology & Evolution 28 (10): 2905-2920.

Gaieski JB, Owings AC, Vilar MG, Dulik MC, Gaieski DF, Gittelman RM, Lindo J, Gau L, Schurr TG, The Genographic Consortium (2011) Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American Descendant Community in Bermuda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 146 (3): 392-405. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21588.

Cai X, Qin Z, Wen B, Xu S, Wang Y, Lu Y, Wei L, Wang C, Li S, Huang X, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium (2011) Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes. PLoS One 6 (8): e24282.

Haber M, Platt DE, Badro DA, Xue Y, El-Sibai M, Bonab MA, Youhanna SC, Saade S, Soria-Hernanz DF, Royyuru A, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C, Zalloua PA, The Genographic Consortium (2011) Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon. European Journal of Human Genetics 19(3): 334-340.

Martínez-Cruz B, Ziegle J, Sanz P, Sotelo G, Anglada R, Plaza S, Comas D, and The Genographic Consortium (2011) Multiplex single-nucleotide polymorphism typing of the human Y chromosome using TaqMan probes. Investigative Genetics 2 (2): 13.

Jota MS, Lacerda DR, Sandoval J., Vieira PPR, Santos-Lopes SS, Bisso-Machado R, Paixão-Cortes VR, Revollo S, Paz-y-Miño C, Fujita R, Salzano FM, Bonatto SL, Bortolini MC, Tyler-Smith C, Santos FR, and The Genographic Consortium (2011) A new subhaplogroup of Native American Y-chromosomes from the Andes. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21519).

Yan S, Wang CC, Li H, Li SL, Jin L, and The Genographic Consortium (2011) An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4. European Journal of Human Genetics 19: 1013-1015.

Yang K, Zheng H, Qin Z, Lu Y, Farina SE, Li S, Jin L, Li D, Li H, and The Genographic Consortium (2011) Positive selection on mitochondrial M7 lineages among the Gelong people in Hainan. Journal of Human Genetics 56: 253-256.

Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Adler CJ, Der Sarkissian CSI, Brandt G, Schwarz C, Nicklisch N, Dresely V, Fritsch B, Balanovska E, Villems R, Meller H, Alt KW, Cooper A, the Genographic Consortium (2010) Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities. PLoS Biology 8 (11): e1000536.

Melé M, Javed A, Pybus M, Calafell F, Parida L, Bertranpetit J, The Genographic Consortium (2010) A New Method to Reconstruct Recombination Events at a Genomic Scale. PLoS Computational Biology 6(11): e1001010. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001010

Zhadanov SI, Dulik MC, Markley M, Jennings GW, Gaieski JB, Elias G, Schurr TG, and The Genographic Consortium (2010) Genetic heritage and native identity of the Seaconke Wampanoag tribe of Massachusetts. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142: 579-589.

Qin Z, Yang Y, Kang L, Yan S, Cho K, Cai X, Lu Y, Zheng H, Zhu D, Fei D, Li S, Jin L, Li H, The Genographic Consortium (2010) A mitochondrial revelation of early human migrations to the Tibetan Plateau before and after the last glacial maximum. American Journal Physical Anthropology 143 (4): 555-69. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21350.

Bramanti B, Thomas MG, Haak W, Unterlaender M, Jores P, Tambets K, Antanaitis-Jacobs I, Haidle MN, Jankauskas R, Kind C-J, Lueth F, Terberger T, Hiller J, Matsumura S, Forster P, Burger J (2009) Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe's first farmers. Science 326 (5949): 137-140.

Meyer C, Brandt G, Haak W, Ganslmeier RA, Meller H, Alt KW (2009) The Eulau eulogy: Bioarchaeological interpretation of lethal violence in Corded Ware multiple burials from Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28 (4): 412-423.

Haak W*, Brandt G*, De Jong HN, Meyer C, Ganslmeier R, Heyd V, Hawkesworth C, Pike AWG, Meller H, Alt KW (2008) Ancient DNA, strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the later stone age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (47): 18226-18231.

Donlon D, Casey M, Haak W, Adler C (2008) Early colonial burial practices for perinates at the Parramatta convict hospital, NSW. Australasian Historical Archaeology 26: 71-84.

Burger J, Kirchner M, Bramanti B, Haak W, Thomas MG (2007) Absence of the lactase-persistence-associated allele in early Neolithic Europeans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (10): 3736-3741.

Burger J, Gronenborn D, Forster P, Matsumura S, Bramanti B, Haak W (2006) Response to Comment on ‘‘Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites'' Science 312: 1875b.

Haak W, Forster P, Bramanti B, Matsumura S, Brandt G, Tänzer M, Villems R, Renfrew C, Gronenborn D, Alt KW, Burger J (2005) Ancient DNA from the First European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites. Science 310: 1016-1018.

Haak W, Gruber P, Rühli FJ, Böni T, Ulrich-Bochsler S, Frauendorf E, Burger J, Alt KW (2005) Molecular evidence of HLA-B27 in a historical case of ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis & Rheumatism 52(10): 3318-3319.

Haak W, Burger J, Alt KW (2004) ABO genotyping by PCR-RFLP and cloning and sequencing. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 62 (4): 397-410.
Refereed conference papers
Haak W, Brandt G, Meyer C, De Jong HN, Ganslmeier R, Pike AWG, Meller H, Alt KW (2010) Die schnurkeramischen Familiengräber von Eulau - ein außergewöhnlicher Fund und seine interdisziplinäre Bewertung. Tagungen des Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle, Band 04, pp. 80-89.

Burger J, Haak W (2010) Mitochondrial Haplotypen aus humanen neolithischen Skeletten der LBK bzw. AVK. In: Gronenborn D, Petrasch (eds) The Spread of the Neolithic to Central Europe. RGZM-Tagungen, Band 4 1/2, pp. 141-146.

"On the Internet, nobody knows you're a dog."


     Peter Steiner, The New Yorker,  July 5, 1993

Monday, January 26, 2015

"Ancient North Eurasians": North-South Ancient Admixture in Central-South Eurasia

Back in February of 2014, I put up a post discussing an Admixture components pattern that appears across populations extending from Russia in the Chuvash, to the North Kannadi people in Southern India. I describe this pattern as the "Northeast Asian" - "East Asian" admixture components pattern.
 
This pattern can also be observed in the Admixture run shown in the paper The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana, Rasmussen et al, 2014, Extended data, Figure 3:
 

Pronounced "Northeast Asian" like components can be observed in the Mari (related to the Chuvash), as well as Northeast Asian populations.
 
Pronounced "East Asian" like components can be observed in South Asian populations such as the North Kannadi people, as well as in populations of Southeast Asia.
 
These two components seem to be dispersed into each other from an ancient date, as described in the February 9th post.
 
I have seen various blogs and papers discussing the presence of an "Ancient North Eurasian (ANE)" component.  In them, it is proposed that this "ANE" component is the cause for the "eastward" population shift in Europeans since the Mesolithic. 
 
I would propose that this "ANE" component is not a single "component", and does not come from a single geographic location in the last 20,000 years or so.  It is widely dispersed.  Therefore, it is likely a very ancient population process which is derived in part from archaic admixture.
 
In Europeans, the source for this "ANE" component likely is not derived from a single source or entry point into Europe.  If the Motala12 ancient Mesolithic DNA sample from Sweden is any indication, "ANE" like components appear to have been diffusing into Europe since the Mesolithic.  These "ANE" diffusion processes continue to the present day.
 
Finally, apart from the fact that the Mal'ta MA1 sample from Lake Baikal, shown on the PCA of the Lazarides paper 2013, happens to line up on the PCA with populations such as the Chuvash, I strongly doubt that the R1* y-DNA haplogroup is widely correlated with "ANE" like components.  The Mal'ta MA1 population was probably on the leading edge of an eastward expansion that was not shared across the R1* extended family. 
 
[ Author's note (5/1/2015):  By the statement "I strongly doubt that the R1* y-DNA haplogroup is widely correlated with "ANE" like components", I specifically mean that there is not a strong correlation of the R1b ydna ghs.  However, there does appear to a stronger correlation of R1a ydna hgs with the "ANE" admixture component.  The reason for this split in the correlation of R1a and R1b ydna hgs is likely because these groups split prior to the last Ice Age, with R1a positioned on the Steppe 25,000 years ago, and R1b positioned somewhere in Europe 25,000 year ago. ]
 
Marnie Dunsmore (January 26th, 2015)
 
_______________________________________________
 
The February 9th, 2014 post:
 
Quite early in the history of this blog, on November 3rd, 2010, I wrote a post discussing a minor "signal" I had noticed buried in the Dodecad admixture results for populations of Eastern Europe, the Middle East and South Asia.  The "signal" consisted of a combination of two Admixture components: "Northeast Asian" and "East Asian".  You can read about that early post here.  I've added a few thoughts on this topic recently, noting that the pattern is likely evidence of ancient bidirectional gene flow. (See Max Born on receiving the 1954 Nobel Prize . . ., Update, February 1, 2014.) 
 
In this post, I look at additional major components such as the "West Asian" component.
 
Reviewing observations from the previous posts, a number of deductions are possible:
 
1.  The "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" admixture components are geographically correlated.
 
2.  The pattern extends from the Volga region of Southern Russia (Chuvash), into the Caucasus and Black Sea,  then into Pakistan, splitting westward through Syria into the Fertile Crescent, touching even into Egypt, and separately, trailing south through Pakistan extending west along the South Asian coast.
 
3.  The pattern is widely diffused compared to other admixture components.  In particular, it is much more widely diffused compared to the "North European" component and the "West Asian" component.  This wide diffusion is possibly indicative of great age since coalescence.
 
4.  As argued in the February 1st update of the post Max Born on receiving the 1954 Nobel Prize . . ., the "North European" component is likely correlated with pre-Ice Age hunter gatherers. 
 
5.  The "North European" component does not appear to be correlated with the "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" pattern and is likely a superposition on it.
 
6.  The "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" component does not appear to be present in the following populations considered in the Dodecad Admixture run:  Lithuanians, Cypriots, Spanish, French Basques, Tuscans, French, Northern Italians, Armenians, and Mozabite Berbers.  It is therefore uncorrelated with admixture in these populations.
 
In this post today, I look at three other major Admixture components with respect to the "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" pattern.  These are the "West Asian", the "Southwest Asian" and the "Southern European" components.

Again, the data is normalized on the "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" pattern. The remaining un-normalized components are allowed to float above this.  Figure 1 shows the zoomed in view with the normalization pattern running along the bottom.  This normalization approach corresponds with a North-South geographic pattern, as described in item "2." above.  Figure 2 shows the same data, but from a "zoomed out" perspective.  Populations are listed below Figure 2.

Figure 1:  Admixture components with normalized "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" pattern show at bottom.  Components are arranged with highest "Northeast Asian" contribution on the left and highest "East Asian" contribution on the right.
 
Figure 2:  As in Figure 1, but "zoomed out" to fully show the un-normalized major components floating above the normalized "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" pattern.
 
 Populations:
    1:  Chuvash
    2:  Lezgin
    3:  Georgian
    4:  Sindhi
    5:  Belorussian
    6:  Adygei
    7.  Pathan
    8:  Syrian
    9:  Turk
   10: Jordanian
   11: Romanian
   12: Ashkenazi
   13: North Kannadi
   14: Gujarati
   15: Uygur
   16: Burusho
   17: Egyptian

Looking at the above plots, the essential question to be asked is this:  Is there a correlation between the "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" pattern and
 
1.  the "West Asian" component,
2.  the "Southwest Asian" component, or
3.  the "Southern European" component
 
?
 
The "West Asian" component is widely distributed.  In a few noticeable cases, such as the Chuvash, the Uygurs, the Burusho, and the North Kannadi, the "West Asian" component is only a very low level admixture component.  Based on this, it cannot be argued that the "West Asian" component is strongly correlated across the ancient "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" pattern.  Moreover, the "West Asian" component is likely a superposition on this pre-existing population.  On the other hand, it has already been argued in another post that the point of coalescence of the "West Asian" component is somewhere in the Caucasus.   The distribution of the "West Asian" component centered about Georgians is vaguely apparent here.
 
The distributions of the other two major components "Southwest Asian" and "Southern European" are sparse and loosely distributed.   There does not appear to be an easily observable correlation between the ancient "Northeast Asian"-"East Asian" pattern and these components, at least from this data.

Saturday, January 24, 2015

Is launeddas - La musica dei sardi



Launeddas

"The launeddas is a typical southern Sardinian woodwind instrument made of three pipes. It is a polyphonic instrument, with one of the pipes functioning as a drone and the other two playing the melody in thirds and sixths.

"Predecessors of the launeddas can be traced back to approximately 2700 BCE in Egypt, where reed pipes were originally called ‘memet’. During the Old Kingdom in Egypt (2778-2723 BCE), memets were depicted on the reliefs of seven tombs at Saqqarra, six tombs at Giza, and the pyramids of Queen Khentkaus. The launeddas itself dates back to at least the eighth century BCE and are still played today during religious ceremonies and dances (su ballu). Distinctively, they are played using extensive variations on a few melodic phrases, and a single song can last over an hour, producing some of the "most elemental and resonant (sounds) in European music"."

Related Post on this blog:

The Geographic Distribution of Early European Farmers

Related Paper:

Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny (pdf format)

Arghoul double flute manufacturing



Arghoul

يرغول - yarghool - ירע'ול 003 / اورط وادي سلامة



Arghoul

مجوز - מג'ויז - mjwez / اورط وادي سلامة



Mijwiz 

Friday, January 23, 2015

Bagpipe of the Republic of Georgia: The Gudastviri (გუდასტვირი), Chiboni, Stviri, or Tulumi.



Gudastviri (Link)

Krampus and Perchten in Alpine Bavaria and Austria



















(Link)

"Perchten and Krampusses (wild spirits) in many different styles and shapes can be seen throughout the Bavarian and Austrian alpine region during the winter season. They are frightening and not very appealing to the eye.

""Krampus" is the untamed, shaggy spirit that accompanies St. Nicholas. Krampusses usually roam in larger groups. Their traditional costumes and masks are elaborately handcrafted. Krampusses can usually be encountered on and a few days before December 6.

""Perchten" are wild pagan spirits widespread throughout the Austrian and Bavarian region. The appear alone or in groups, especially on three specific winter nights, called the "rough nights," i.e. the night before St. Nicholas (December 6), before the winter solstice (December 21) and before Epiphany (January 6). They carry bells and other loud instruments to dispel the winter.

"Nowadays the originally different Krampus and Perchten customs have merged into one in many regions."

Related Posts on this site:

"Тргнало ми лудо младо" on Gaida played by Mile Kolarov (Link)

Bells and Winter Festivals of Greek Macedonia (Link)

Urálás: A New Year's tradition of the Moldavian Hungarian Csangos (Link)

Ragoutsaria (Link)

Early Instruments of Belarus (Link)

Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Vaska Ilieva I Aleksandar Sarievski- Or, Nevesto Stojanice


R1b1a2* or M269(xL23)














(Link)

"R1b1a2 (2011 name) is defined by the presence of SNP marker M269. R1b1a2* or M269(xL23) is found at highest frequency in the central Balkans notably Kosovo with 7.9%, Macedonia 5.1% and Serbia 4.4%.[7] Kosovo is notable in also having a high percentage of descendant L23* or L23(xM412) at 11.4% unlike most other areas with significant percentages of M269* and L23* except for Poland with 2.4% and 9.5% and the Bashkirs of southeast Bashkortostan with 2.4% and 32.2% respectively.[7] Notably this Bashkir population also has a high percentage of M269 sister branch M73 at 23.4%.[7] Five individuals out of 110 tested in the Ararat Valley, Armenia belonged to R1b1a2* and 36 to L23*, with none belonging to subclades of L23."

Macedonian Folk Song "Se navali Shar Planina"



An old Macedonian Folk song performed by the renowned Macedonian folk singer Aleksandar Sarievski (1922 - 2002).

Other old Macedonian songs he performed were "Uči me majko, karaj me", " Jovano Jovanke", "Zajdi, zajdi jasno sonce" and many more.

Pictures are from the Sar Mountains.  The dogs are of the fearless Macedonian shepherd dog 'Sarplaninec'.

"Тргнало ми лудо младо" on Gaida played by Mile Kolarov



To match the mysterious sounds of the 2 gajdii (bagpipes), this video has some images from ancient ritual festivals at New Year and Spring (surva/сурва, kukeri/кукери, prochka/прочка, mpampougera, babogeri, moumougeri, rougatsaria, rusalii etc) that date back centuries in Thrace (Bulgaria & Greece), Macedonia, Serbia, Romania, Transylvania, Ukraine etc.

Motives have even been connected to the ancient cults of Dionysus and also the Avestian/Iranian god Saurva or Suvar.

Also shown are the šarplaninec or šarplaninac (sharplaninets) breed of shepherd dog that is named after the šar planina mountain range bordering the Katlanovo region and Kosovo.

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Population Genetics Not So Hot

As many of you know, professionally, I'm an electrical engineer, not a population geneticist.  I happen to work in an area of electrical engineering where a background in physics also comes in handy.  Over the years, I've experienced the culture in both electrical engineering and physics.  I also happen to have spent four years in the Canadian Air Force working as a program manager for the F-18 fighter aircraft in Ottawa, Ontario and Cold Lake, Alberta.  I'm pretty comfortable working in fields where there are few women.

In these fields, I can remember times when I've been told things like "you shouldn't be here", or "women can't be geniuses so you shouldn't be here", or "women don't have spatial ability so they can't do" whatever.  I've been told by several professors that I couldn't do graduate level work, even though I had obtained an A+ in their class.  Somewhat amusingly, I've also been told that I should have gone into software, rather than hardware, because women are naturally good at software and not hardware.  I've also been told, emphatically, by a woman professor no less, that biology is better for women, as opposed to physics and engineering.

When I was younger, it seemed odd to me that many of the things I wasn't supposed to be able to do, with some practice, turned out to be not so difficult.  As I got older, I realized that assumptions about human capability are, more often than not, quite underestimated.

In engineering, I can say that I've rarely experienced overt hostility.  Most men have been curious, wondered if I was going to be able to hack it, yet have often been happy to be able to talk to a woman about their passion.  Perhaps this is because of the general level of competence of electrical engineers and physicists.  It probably doesn't hurt that there's a standardizing body for EEs, the IEEE.

One of the things I've also enjoyed about electrical engineering is that it is rather apolitical.  Many electrical engineers are quite altruistic.  It's also a very international field and as a result, I've met people from all over the world.

As I've worked on this blog, I've had a chance to poke around in other fields such as population genetics.  Maybe it is just because of the anonymity of the Internet, which fosters bad behavior, but I have to say that my experience as a women writing this blog has certainly darkened my perspective on this field.   It appears to be rife with people who have an axe to grind.  There seems to be a lack of standardization on basic skills or methods, and little effort to ensure that best methods are used.  I can't ever remember any of my professors in electrical engineering or physics allowing their students and post docs to participate in an anonymous online forum related to their research that excludes and berates women.

In its current state, I can't say that I would recommend this field to any young person, male or female.

Monday, January 19, 2015

My Letter of Application to the JOE PICKRELL Lab Data Scientist Position (for which I received no response)

Sent: Monday, February 03, 2014 12:37 AM
To: 'careers-pickrell-lab-data-scientist@nygenome.org'
Subject: Pickrell Lab Data Scientist Position


Dear Joe,

I’m interested in applying for this position and am attaching my CV.

With regard to the specific mentioned requirements, I have coded a full up GUI in C++.  Admittedly, it’s been awhile since I have done full on software package development.  However, in my undergraduate EE program at Carleton University, I met all course requirements that would have allowed me to graduate with a degree in Computer Engineering.  This would include classes in structured design, algorithms, databases, coding style, etc.  I’ve coded in many languages.  I have not yet coded in Python, but from what I’ve heard, it is easier to code in Python than in C++.  I could probably pick it up quite quickly.

I work daily in a UNIX environment and have for most of my career.

Likely, the key contribution I could make in the short term would be to redo the basis functions in Treemix so that they can handle space-time distributions.  I’ve been looking at various papers and believe I have an idea of how this could be done.  It would also be good to add to the way that the data can be visually represented to allow space-time views.

At least at first, I could do this remotely, which would be more workable for me in the short term.

Sincerely,

Marnie Dunsmore
San Francisco, CA

[In addition to having two undergraduate degrees, one in Electrical Engineering (with a minor in Computer Engineering), and the other an Honours Degree in Math and Physics, I also have an Electrical Engineering Masters of Applied Science Degree from the University of British Columbia.  I was two years behind Chris Hadfield at the Royal Military College of Canada and was one of the first women to graduate. I have more than ten years of work experience as a Silicon Valley analog mixed signal designer.  I don't need a job, as I already have a very good one.  However, I think it's interesting that the Pickrell Lab didn't respond to my application.  I also recently noticed that Pickrell and Graham Coop, Pickrell's friend, are now working on space-time distributions.]

Remembering Martin Luther King Jr.

Sunday, January 18, 2015

"Let's hope that the Jomon aren't a jumbled mess, like Kostenki"

If you read the latest post over at the Eurogenes blog, you'll notice in the comment thread a discussion by various researchers discussing ancient DNA.  One of the researchers, "Chad Rohlfsen", is a researcher that is clearly associated the David Reich Lab at Harvard Medical School.

It's interesting to see that "Chad" thinks that when an ancient DNA sample has diverse or noisy components, he views it as a "jumbled mess":  "Let's hope that the Jomon aren't a jumbled mess, like Kostenki." 

It's possible that the sequenced DNA of both the Kostenki and MA-1 (Figure 1) samples were noisy, but it is just as likely that their component diversity represents a real, as yet to be explained, phenomenon.

Over and over again, these researchers continue to make the proposition that there was a time when populations did not experience admixture, or that admixture should be viewed as a "jumbled mess."  They insist that tree-like splits in human populations are the norm, even when there is a lot of evidence that partial divergence and reconvergence of only partially diverged populations are also frequent events in human population history.  (See for example, comments of Joe Pickrell ["ryukendo kendow"], insisting on tree-like splits in Europeans.)

Personally, I find it bizarre that Harvard is putting up with this.

List of some of the "researchers" commenting:

"Chad Rohlfsen" :  a researcher associated with the David Reich Lab at Harvard Medical School

"Krefter" : Jean-Jacques Hublin with the Max Planck Institute,

"ryukendo kendow" : Joe Pickrell at Columbia,

"Davidski" : Wolfgang Haak at the University of Adelaide.

Japan–France–US comparison of infant weaning from mother's viewpoint

Koichi Negayama, Hiroko Norimatsu, Marguerite Barratt, and Jean-François Bouville

J Reprod Infant Psychol. Feb 2012; 30(1): 77–91.
Published online Apr 27, 2012. doi:  10.1080/02646838.2011.649473

Background:  Breastfeeding and weaning are strongly connected with infant–mother mutual autonomy, and hence are good touchstones to examine the characteristics of the mother–child relationship. Comparison of the weaning practice gives a framework to understand characteristics of the mother–infant relationship. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare three industrialised countries concerning the relationship between feeding and weaning practices and its reasons, mother's perception of child care, and of breast milk and formula. Methods: A questionnaire study on weaning practice was conducted for 310 Japanese, 756 French, and 222 American mothers with 4- to 20-month-old infants. Results: French mothers expected and had accomplished weaning at an earlier age of the infant, compared to Japanese and American mothers. Perceived insufficiency of breast milk was the leading reason for the termination of breastfeeding for Japanese mothers at the earlier stages, whereas back to work was the more important reason for French mothers. Japanese mothers were more negative in their image of themselves as mothers, whereas French mothers felt more burdened by child-care. Japanese mothers who terminated breastfeeding because of perceived breast milk insufficiency were also those who were less motivated to breastfeed. Conclusion: Weaning is a significant framework to interpret cultural differences in mother–infant relationship. The perceived insufficiency is interpreted as a solution of conflict between the social pressure to breastfeed and its burden.

Percentage of mothers breastfeeding (exclusively or mixed with formula feeding) at each age. Data for the first 4 months were obtained from all samples, and for infants over 4 months, only data from infants at least that age were used.

Adding "Mammals Suck ... Milk" to blog roll

I ran across this funny and well researched blog article about breast feeding and weaning.  I'm adding this blog to my blog roll.

As a mom who breast fed her daughter, it's funny and sad to read some of the stuff on this blog.  I'm glad I did this (breast feeding).  However, I also think that it is a woman's choice.  Attachment parenting and breast feeding are a luxury in the time compressed, corporate workplace focused culture of the world today. 

In short, when it comes to breast feeding to the natural age of weaning, women are forced to choose between a ridiculous juggling act, career damaging prolonged time out of the workforce, poverty, or early weaning and feeding their children formula.  This won't change any time soon.

Update:

Here's another well researched blog article from 2011:

Bullshitometer: No, the average age of weaning worldwide is not four years ...

Friday, January 16, 2015

Itinérances Marzoug



Marzoug is a musical group playing on traditional instruments (mezoued,mizwad and drums) from the Biskra region of Algeria.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

On The Copper Age Indo-European Steppe Expansion Theory

 
The above diagram is from the Lazarides paper from December of 2013.
 
You may know that the Eurogenes blog (along with some very prominent researchers) has been heavily and stubbornly promoting the theory of a very sudden invasion of Europe during the Copper Age from either the Ponto-Caspian Steppe or the Central Asian Steppe.
 
If you look in the comments of this post (January 14, 2015 at 10:46 PM), you'll see a rather succinct explanation from the Eurogenes author, as follows:
 

So, just breaking down "Davidski's" own statements:
 
1.  R1a-Z93 (Indo-Iranian), R1a-Z282 (Balto-Slavic/Norse), and R1a-CTS4385 (Germanic) appear to expand during the Copper age.
 
2.  Where did these expansions take place from?  "Davidski" says he doesn't know.
 
3.  He states that the expansions occured at about the same time that the European genetic structure shifts from "Sardinian-like" to "Eastern European-like".
 
I've stated this before, but it is readily apparent in looking at the Lazarides PCA, above, that Europeans did not shift from being "Sardinian-like" to being "Eastern European-like."  More correctly, they shifted from being "Loschbour-like", "Sardinian-like" and "Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherer-like" toward populations in the East (anywhere between Poland and the Levant.)
 
Davidski doesn't mention an R1b rich population as a potential source for the Copper Age shift, probably because R1b doesn't look like a dominant population on the Copper Age Steppe.
 
There is R1, R2, Q, and P DNA on the Steppe, that is true.  But with the R/Q/P split happening more than 25,000 years ago, it's problematic to be inferring from this, a "source" for Copper Age R1a.  After all, "Q" got all the way to Central America with just dogs in 15,000 years.   So what's with thinking that R1 lineages were simply confined to the Central Eurasian steppe for 20,000 years (and not to Europe until the Copper age) ?
 
There definitely is a shift of modern Europeans between the Mesolithic and today.  I agree with that.
 
But I don't agree that the shift happened due only to replacement from the Ponto-Caspian or Central Eurasian Steppe and only during the Copper Age.
 
It's just as likely that the genetic shift of Europeans is due to Western Europeans fusing with populations of Finland, Scandinavia, the Baltic, Balkans (including Greece), Central Europe, the Ukraine, Russia, Anatolia, and the Levant, starting in the Mesolithic and continuing to the present day.  It would have been a complex process, with waves of people possibly moving both in and out of the Steppe and in and out of Europe, since the R/Q/P split.

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Bells & Winter Festivals of Greek Macedonia

 
Amazon (Link)
Smithsonian Folkways (Link)

Urálás: A New Year's tradition of the Moldavian Hungarian Csangos


(Link)
 
The Urálás is a tradition in Moldavia that predates Christianity.
 
In the late afternoon of New Year’s Eve in Moldavia, groups of young men head off to do the Urálás with whips, the “Bull” (friction drums), and bagpipe or flute (or possibly with a fiddle).  In some locations, Shepherd's Horns and a number of cowbells are included. The text of the Urálás is read as the men take turns delivering the New Year message throughout the long night, moving from house to house.

In some aspects, especially making noise with bells, drums and bagpipes, as well as moving from house to house with tidings for the New Year, this tradition resembles the Ragoutsaria tradition of Kastoria in Northern Greece.

Saturday, January 10, 2015

Gaida of the Osogovo Mountains


Gaida of the Osogovo Mountains

Ragoutsaria


    The lake city of Kastoria
 

Ragoutsaria is the name of a celebration that takes place in Western Macedonia, Greece from 6 to 8 January.   The most well known celebration is that held in the lake city of Kastoria.  It is an ancient celebration of Natures' rebirth according to fiestas for Dionysus and Kronos (Saturnalia). During the Ragoutsaria, locals and thousands of visitors form bands and disguise themselves as sheep, goats (and other animals), the opposite sex and other figures. Today, various brass instruments dominate the musical scene, but in the recent past, the gaida was the instrument of choice for this celebration.

Tuesday, January 6, 2015

Warm Two Stream Instability Simulation (2)




Here's another two stream instability simulation.  This one runs a bit longer and illustrates the effect I'm thinking of a little better.  In essence, the two streams set up a kind of quasi stability, with unadmixed zones outside the boundary area, yet with a boundary zone where incomplete mixing events continuously recur.   Even more curiously, occasionally, instability events dominate the whole process.  I use the "warm" two stream simulation because it's likely that population mixing is a "noisy" process.

Warm Two Stream Instability Simulation (1)

Here's a way to view how two differentiated wide ranging hunter-gatherer groups might genetically interact.  For a reference regarding the ranging behavior of hunter-gatherer groups, see Riede, Felix, "The Resettlement of Northern Europe", in The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers, Oxford University Press, 2014.

Here's the sim:


It's just a guess, but possibly conceptually useful.

ABC by Population Annealing

Xi'an's Og on the ABC by Population Annealing algorithm (Link)

"That this form of ABC-SMC improves upon the basic ABC rejection approach is clear. However it needs to build some self-control to avoid arbitrary calibration steps and reduce the instability of the final estimates."

Friday, January 2, 2015

Bullying in the Genome Blogosphere by Academics

Dear Readers,

I normally like to keep personal comments off this blog.  However, out of concern for other members of the public who follow blogs about population genetic prehistory, I will comment directly here about some of my experiences over the last five years in the genome "blogosphere".

As many of you know, this blog is for fun and a way for me to follow developments in the fields of ancient DNA as well as archaeology.  I also enjoy covering topics in ethnography and mythology as they might relate to human prehistory.

This blog got started about five years ago after I stumbled on a blog called Dienekes' Anthropology blog.  As it happens, my husband's parents are from the Pindos Mountains in Northern Greece.  After a number of visits to the Pindos, I became interested in the prehistory and archaeology of this area, and of the Balkans in general.  One day after googling around about Northern Greek history, I noticed that Dienekes's Anthropology blog had many articles that were covering the prehistory of Greece as well as other areas of Europe.  Needless to say, I got wrapped up with making comments on Dienekes' blog for about six months. 

At some point, Dienekes started to post Admixture data on populations of Europe and the Middle East.  Given my electrical engineering and linear systems background, it wasn't very difficult to notice that some of the genetic components adhered to a pattern of algebraically linear variation over geography.  I remember commenting about this on the blog.  Out of the blue, one of the other commenters, "Ponto", in response to my posts, suggested that I was "racist".  I was pretty surprised by this, but now realize it was obviously an attempt to intimidate me from trying to analyze the patterns I was seeing.

It was at this point that I decided I could start my own blog and didn't need to waste my time on Dienekes' blog.  So that's what I did.

About a month later, Paul Givargidze emailed me asking me if I would use some of the linear analysis methods I was using on my blog to look at Eurogenes Admixture data.  Paul was very keen on showing that Jews were related to Assyrians.  After using MATLAB to arrange the data geographically, I told Paul that I didn't think that you could argue that Jews were related specifically to Assyrians.  Paul didn't seem very happy about that, and in the end, went ahead and used my observation about the Gaussian distribution over geography (an effect of absolute density regulation) in order to publish an article with Razib Khan. Needless to say, Paul was happy to use my idea without reference.

Shortly after starting my blog, an article was published in Nature discussing genome blogging.  The article mentioned the Eurogenes blog, Dienekes' Anthropology blog, as well as Joe Pickrell, and David Wesolowski, so clearly, "Dienekes", Joe Pickrell and "David Wesolowski" have known each other since 2010.

Busy with other things, I stopped doing linear analysis with Admixture data about six months after starting this blog. 

Later, as topics of interest passed my way, I would write about them.  I didn't want to do more analysis.  I realized I wasn't well connected enough to promote my work and anything that I published on my blog would probably be stolen.  So I focused on topics that were fun, of interest to me, rather than doing analysis.

Since the mid nineties, I'd been interested in the effort to sequence the Neanderthal Genome.  The IEEE magazine Spectrum, the magazine for electrical engineers, covered this topic over the years, so I often came across articles about it.  Some of the articles on this blog reflect my interest in the algorithms involved in looking at the Neanderthal genome and other archaic genomes.

Another interest related to genetic prehistory was how humans migrated out of Africa and how they might be related to each other.  Growing up in Western Canada, where there are Native Canadian people, I'd wondered how these vibrant cultures were related to me and to each other.

Having lived in West Africa as a child, its been fascinating to see how genetic data can illustrate the prehistory of West Africa and other parts of Africa.

Climate and ice ages, especially as they have impacted human population movements, have been another avenue of investigation.

Other topics, such as mythology or ethnography, are mostly for fun.  They're not really related to population models, but they can be somewhat informative.  For instance, many myths contain stories of floods, which could have recorded the human experience of sea level rise since the last glacial maximum.  Ethnographers in Russia have tried to use the analysis of myths to track population movements across Eurasia into the Americas.

Every once in a while, you run across a blog which is really stunning.  Many of you in my blog roll have delighted me with your extraordinary breadth of blog research and writing.

About two years ago, I ran across a blog called Aggsbach's Paleolithic blog.  I'd always been captivated by geology and rocks.  My father had a passing interest in lithics and rock art, so when I discovered Aggsbach's blog, I was absolutely captivated.  After following it for about a year, I realized it was the blog of Jean-Jacques Hublin, the famous paleoanthropologist. Some of the archaeology articles on this blog come from this blog, and Hublin's other blog, theolduvaigorge.tumblr.com.

Since last spring, I hadn't been blogging very much, and had been busy with other things, including a heavy professional workload.  I'm also a wife and mom, so my life is often pretty hectic.

After writing this blog for five years, and reading broadly across archaeology and population genetics, its not hard to see problems with certain papers.  For instance, when the Lazarides paper was published on December 23, 2013, I was puzzled by a part of their model that stated that "We model these populations' deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a “Basal Eurasian” lineage that split prior to the diversification of all other non-African lineages."  Mostly, I could not understand how a population event, this "Basal Eurasian" split, which had to have happened more than 50 thousand years ago, could be teased from ancient DNA data, when we still had so much trouble resolving more recent population events.

A few months ago, I stumbled on an article published in the New York Times under the title Science: From Ancient DNA, a clearer picture of Europeans Today.  It was Carl Zimmer again, publishing for the Reich Lab.  So I read the article, and what do you know, I almost fell off my chair when I read this:

"But most living Europeans also carry genes from a third population, which appears to have arrived more recently. Dr. Reich and his colleagues found the closest match in DNA taken from a 24,000-year-old individual in Siberia, suggesting that the third wave of immigrants hailed from north Eurasia. The ancient Europeans that the scientists studied did not share this North Eurasian DNA. They concluded that this third wave must have moved into Europe after 7,000 years ago."

Having followed the Reich lab papers for the last few years, I knew that this third wave they were taking about, the North Eurasian DNA, was at least partly associated with the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic DNA of countries like Lithuania, Finland, Poland, Belarus, the Ukraine and the Volga. It's true that the particular sample they got the DNA from was from Lake Baikal, but it could hardly be argued that all "North Eurasian DNA" comes "from north Eurasia" "into Europe after 7,000 years ago."

I'd been working on a conference paper over the summer looking at the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Northern Europe using the definitive reference The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers published this year (2014, see, for instance, page 541).  Reich's statement about "North Eurasians" arriving only 7,000 years ago in Northern Europe didn't add up with what archaeologists were saying about the post Ice Age repopulation of Northern Europe.

I next noticed an article in the Harvard Gazette, published on December 3rd, where Patterson, who is associated with the Reich Lab, made the statement "that linguistic evidence has tracked the ancestral language, called “late proto-Indo-European” to about 3,500 years ago in the Caucasus, among a people who had wheeled vehicles at a time when they were just being put into use."

I eventually stumbled on the Eurogenes blog in which a number of bloggers, obviously many of them insiders to the Reich lab, were discussing the soon to be published paper regarding Patterson's "late proto-Indo-European" hypothesis.

Rather than bore you with the details, you can read the kind of discourse these professors engage in yourself.  Here's ryukendo kendow on the Eurogenes blog.  And here he is explaining a fudge in his model for the evolution of Eurasians.

The problem with all of this anonymous blogging by professors is that when they disagree with a member of the public, because they are blogging anonymously, they sometimes feel entitled to bully. I've personally experienced these academics telling me that I'm an idiot, that my blog is junk because it has too much ethnography and artifact information, that it's not quantitative enough, and that I shouldn't be allowed to call it "linear population model". I've been called racist, crazy and stupid. I've been wrongfully associated with the ideas of others, simply because I occasionally have blog interchanges with people these researchers don't like. I've been accused of being an idiot because I don't use D statistics on my blog.

So, I think it is time for some of these anonymous professors to come out of the woodwork.

List of professors that blog on Dienekes' Anthropology blog and the Eurogenes blog under pseudonyms:

Dienekes' Anthropology blog is very likely the blog of Manolis Kellis. It's also likely that Manolis blogs at the Eurogenes blog under the pseudonym "Helgenes50". He is a professor with the MIT Computational Biology Group and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Kellis is generally polite, but he is a professor and he is participating anonymously on the questionable Eurogenes blog.

"ryukendo kendow" is likely the pseudonym of Joe Pickrell of the New York Genome Center in lower Manhattan, and is affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences at Columbia University.

Sad to say, "Krefter", "About Time", "eurologist", "DDeden", "ZeGrammarNazi", "carlos lascoutx", "capra internetensis", "Fanty", and "barackobama",  are all Jean-Jacques Hublin, currently a Professor at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig (Germany), where he serves as the Director of the Department of Human Evolution.  As someone who's research I respect, I'm sad to say that I've found him anonymously bullying me on a number of occasions.

Judging by his posts, "Balaji" is probably the pseudonym of David Reich himself, Professor at Harvard Medical School.

"Davidski" is either Wolfgang Haak or David Wesolowski.  They may be the same person.  See the post, Publications of Wolfgang Haak.

"Chad Rohlfsen" is a person associated with the Genographic Consortium.  The Genographic Consortium has funded some of the research at the David Reich Lab at Harvard.