Wednesday, August 6, 2014

Blackfoot Winter Count of Manistokos (1810-1889)

Manistokos (Father of Many Children)
   also known as Parkapotokan (Bad Head)
Recorded: in symbolic pictographs on tanned skin
In:  The R.N. Wilson papers, vol. 2, pages 367-377. -- [ca. 1890-1897].
Archives of the Glenbow Museum, Alberta

1810 - The Kainai see for the first time the horses with cropped tails of the American soldiers.

1811 - Crying Bear has been destroyed.

1812 - The Gambler has been killed by the Flathead.

1813 - Many went on the war path.

1814 - Top Knot has been killed.

1815 - Had Children destroyed by the Crees on the Belly River.

1816 - Kainai Extending His Paw killed by another Kainai.

1817 - Buffalo Paunch killed by his brother.

1818 - Kainai have their Sun Dance in the Winter time.

1819 - Coughing epidemic.

1820 - Four Horns killed by a Pend'oreille.

1821 - Great Chief No Top Knot dies.

1822 - A white man named by the Kainai Short Man takes a place at the confluence of the Musselshell and Missouri Rivers.

1823 - Long Hair dies.

1824 - The Kainai drove away the Crows.

1825 - The Kainai, Gros-Ventres, Flat Heads, Koutenais, and Nez-perces make a peace treaty.

1826 - The Kainai stole many horses from the Crows at a place called "Goose Neck" Butte.

1827 - Many died.

1828 - A chief named Crowfoot was killed by the Crow.

1829 - Seven Crow are destroyed on the American border.

1830 - Very severe Winter.  Many go on the war path and are frozen to death.

1831 - A white man named Kipp establishes a post at the confluence of the Bear and Missouri Rivers.

1832 - An American winters at a place called the Strait (narrows) on the Milk River.

1833 - Very remarkable meteor shower.  The Kainai were camped near High River.

1834 - The Kainai help themselves to the horses of the Crows.

1835 - Two Blackfoot Piegan jump in the Bears River and are killed.

1836 - Epidemic of constipation amongst the children.

1837 - Small pox.

1838 - People recover from the disease.

1839 - Chief White Calf  killed by a white man at Fort Benton (Montana).

1840 - An old Kainai woman named Potsiw was killed, the killer remaining unknown.

1841 - Another woman, Hind Face, was killed by a Kainai.

1842 - Going Crow killed by a party of Crow.

1843 - A large number of lodges camp near the Porcupine Hills at a place called "Woman Pound".

1844 - A white man named Running Wolf fires a cannon at Fort Benton (Montana) and kills thirteen Blackfoot.

1845 - The Kainai separate into two parties for the purpose of trading, one going to Fort Benton (Montana) and the other going to Rocky Mountain House (Alberta).

1846 - Kainai Going With The Sun hides himself from the Crees and escapes.

1847 - The Crows come into the camp to steal horses.

1848 - Not cared for child killed by the Crees on the Teton River.

1849 - Manistokos (author), with a large band of Kainai, moves camp during the Winter to go to Fort Benton (Montana).

1850 - Fifty Crees are killed by the Milk River on this side of the boundary.

1851 - Eagle White Calf killed by a Cree near the Sweet Grass Hills.

1852 - Plenty of snow and the weather becoming mild.  A freshet occurred in the Wintertime.  The Kainai fought the Snake Indians.

1853 - Manistokos (author) winters this side of the boundary line.

1854 - The Crees coming after the Kainai make a shelter of branches in the newly abandoned camp.

1855 - The Kainai are starving and eat their dogs.

1856 - The Indians of different tribes receive a large distribution of goods from the American soldiers whose commanding officer Short Man (Stephens) is very much renowned amongst them.  [Refers to the treaty of October 17th, 1855, enacted with Isaac I. Stevens at the mouth of the Judith River with "the Blackfoot Nation".]

1857 - The ground is very slippery on account of glassy frost.

1858 - Prairie Man kills a Pend'oreille.

1859 - The Kainai make a large sweat bath.

1860 - Two Kainai, Hind Bull and Fish Child, kill each other.

1861 - The Crees steal horses from the Pend'oreille near the Sweet Grass Hills.

1862 - Visit of Medicine Pheasant, great chief of the Crows.  (He was half Blackfoot Piegan and half Crow.)

1863 - Kainai Tartowa gets mad and fires through the camp.  He is killed by his two brothers.

1864 - Four lodges of Gros Ventres, whose chief was Orkotok (Stone), were destroyed by the Blackfoot Piegan on the Belly River.

1865 - Black smallpox.

1866 - The Kainai are kept waiting a long time for the trader.

1867 - A Kainai war party falls among the Crees, and they fight hand to hand.

1868 - The Kainai have plenty of furs and make a big trade.

1869 - Joining the Bear, being drunk, rushes through the camp and kills many.

1870 - Smallpox.

1871 - Great battle with the Crees on the Belly River near Coal Bank - 200 to 250 Crees are killed.

1872 - Some white men settle on High River.

1873 - They winter there again.

1874 - Calf Shirt is killed.

1875 - The Mounted Police are at Fort MacLeod.

1876 - Whiskey trading is stopped [by the Mounted Police.]

1877 - Plenty of buffaloes.  [No mention is made of the signing of Treaty No. 7.]

1878 - The Spring is very late.  The Kainai lose many of their horses.

1879 - Very mild winter.

1880 - The buffalo are no more.

1881 - All of the Blackfoot leave the territory of the United States and come to this side of the boundary.

1882 - Visit of the Marquis of Lorne, son-in-law of the Queen [and Governor General of Canada, who made this tour across Canada in 1881.]

1883 - The Crees steal the horses of [Chief] Red Crow.

1884 - The railway is built across the country. [The C.P.R.]

1885 - Epidemic of Erysipelas.

1886 - Many cattle died.

1887 - The chiefs of the Blackfoot are taken [by train] to visit Ottawa [the capital of Canada.]

1888 - Chief Crowfoot visits the Gros Ventres and is knocked down by a drunken Gros Ventre.

1889 - Epidemic of Influenza.

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