Rivers of Europe, including the Dnieper
Z A Abramova, G B Grigorieva, G I Zaitseva
"This paper discusses the comparative chronology of Upper Paleolithic sites in the Middle Dnieper River basin, based on archaeological and radiocarbon evidence. Three chronological periods of the development of the Upper Paleolithic are distinguished in this area. According to the data obtained, the third period is similar to the European Magdelenian, yet its economies were different. The base of the subsistence economy for Dnieperian hunters was the procurement of mammoth, while reindeer was the most important for the subsistence of European Magdelenian. The abundance of mammoths and the raw material in the form of mammoth tusks made a deep impact on both the economy and the material culture of the hunters in the Dnieper River basin. The C14 dates confirm the chronology subdivision."
"Over the last few years a considerable number of C14 dates became available for UP [Upper Paleolithic] sites Eastern Europe, including more than 90 C14 measurements for the sites discussed here (Synitsyn et al. 1997) and shown in Table 1. The C14 data sets allow one to define the chronological position of UP sites on the C14 timescale and to correlate them with environmental conditions. Paelolithic climate investigations (Velichko et al. 1997) enable one to distinguish three major periods of environmental changes for the central and northern regions of the East European Plain. The first period corresponds to the final stage of the Bryansk Inerstadial (25,000-22,000 BP). The Kotylevo-2, Novgorod-Severski, Berdyzh, and Yurovichi sites belong to just this period."
"The sites belonging to the second period correspond to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21,000-17,000 BP); their very existence proves that despite the maximum cooling, the population did not abandon this territory."