Friday, December 17, 2010

Saudi and Bedouin mt-DNA

Eurasian and African mitocondrial DNA influences in the Saudi population

Khaled K Abu-Amero, Ana M González, Jose M Larruga, Thomas M Bosley, and Vicente M Cabrera

Conclusion:  "The majority of Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85%) have a western Asia provenance. All of the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. The African contribution totalled 12%, with the sub-Saharan Africa (7%) contribution, represented by L macrohaplogroup, being only slightly higher than the M1 and U6 specific North-African contribution (5%). A small Indian influence (3%) was also detected; however, no archaic N and/or M autochthonous lineages in the Arabian Peninsula were found. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV)1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages) matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia."

The paper also contains mt-DNA results for a number of other Mid East populations, including the Bedouin.  I have summarized the autosomal results from Behar, then added mtDNA and yDNA results from Abu-Amero et al and Mohammed et al in the following tables.

Key to Admixture autosomal components:
WAs - West Asian
CAs - Central Asian
SEur - Southern European
NEAs - North East Asian
SWAs - South West Asian
EAs - East Asian
NEur - Northern European
WAfr - West African
EAfr - East African
SAs - South East Asian

Behar et al      
                WAs   CAs  SEur   NEAs  SWAs EAs  NEur   WAfr   EAfr   SAs
Saudis:      0.22    0     0.14   0       0.54   0     0.01    0.03   0.03  0.02
Bed:          0.15    0.01 0.12   0       0.6    0     0.01    0.07   0.05  0

Mohammed et al      
                   J1           R1a1    E3b3        G2         R1b3
Bed:             0.84        0.067    0.06        0.034     0.013
                   SWAs                               WAs
                   (1)                                   (1)

Abu-Amero et al      
                   L               M              N                 R
Saudis:         0.07        0.07        0.1           0.75
Bed:             0.07        0.1         0.12          0.69
                   Afr          C&SAs     WAs          SWAs

Approximate geographic position is listed for the mtDNA and y-DNA haplogroups based on Battaglia et al and Mohammed et al.  Working from these results would indicate that y-DNA haplogroup J1 and mtDNA haplogroup R correlate strongly with the Southwest Asian component.  It is notable that mtDNA R is downstream from Northern Fertile Crescent mtDNA N.  Candidates for the West Asian component are y-DNA G2 and mtDNA N.  Minor ADMIXTURE components withing the Central Asian, West African, East African and South Asian populations are likely associated with L and M mtDNA.

(1)  Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri et al. (24 December 2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17: 820.  (Link)

(2)  Mohammed, T; Xue, Y; Evison, M; Tyler-Smith, C;  "Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait".  Heredity (Link)

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